今のフィレンツェを残してくれたアンナ・マリア・ルイザについて、Wikipedia (生涯), ブログ (功績)、ウェブサイト (遺骨発掘)からの抜粋と、試訳です。



Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici (11 August 1667 – 18 February 1743) was the last scion of the House of Medici. A patron of the arts, she bequeathed the Medici’s large art collection, including the contents of the Uffizi, Palazzo Pitti and the Medicean villas, which she inherited upon her brother Gian Gastone’s death in 1737, and her Palatine treasures to the Tuscan state, on the condition that no part of it could be removed from “the Capital of the grand ducal State….[and from] the succession of His Serene Grand Duke.”[1][2]

アンナ・マリア・ルイザ・デ・メディチ (1667年8月11日-1743年2月18日)は、メディチ家最後の継承者。芸術の擁護者で、メディチ家が所蔵する膨大な数の芸術作品を、「大公国の首都…大公殿下の継承者」から一切持ち出さないことを条件に、トスカーナ公国政府に寄贈した。こうして、1737年に弟ジャン・ガストーネの死に伴い相続したウフィッツィ美術館、ピッティ宮殿、メディチ家別荘にあった数々の芸術品やプファルツの財宝は、今日までフィレンツェに留まることになった。

Image: Wikipedia “アンナ・マリア・ルイザ・デ・メディチ Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici (1667 – 1743)”

Anna Maria Luisa was the only daughter of Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Marguerite Louise d’Orléans, a niece of Louis XIII of France. On her marriage to Elector Johann Wilhelm II, she became Electress Palatine, and, by patronising musicians, she earned for the contemporary Palatine court the reputation of an important music centre. As Johann Wilhelm had syphilis the union produced no offspring, which, combined with her siblings’ barrenness, meant that the Medici were on the verge of extinction.


Image: Wikipedia “ヨハン・ヴィルヘルム(Johann Wilhelm, 1658 – 1716”

In 1713 Cosimo III altered the Tuscan laws of succession to allow the accession of his daughter, and spent his final years canvassing the European powers to agree to recognise this statute. However, in 1735, as part of a territorial arrangement, the European powers appointed Francis Stephen of Lorraine as heir, and he duly ascended the Tuscan throne in her stead.


Image: Wikipedia “フランツ1世(Franz I., Franz Stephan von Lothringen,1708 – 1765”

After the death of Johann Wilhelm, Anna Maria Luisa returned to Florence, where she enjoyed the rank of first lady until the accession of her brother Gian Gastone, who banished her to the Villa La Quiete. When Gian Gastone died in 1737, Francis Stephen’s envoy offered Anna Maria Luisa the position of nominal regent of Tuscany, but she declined. Her death, in 1743, brought the royal House of Medici to an end. Her remains were interred in the Medicean necropolis, the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, which she helped complete.



[…] At Gian Gastone’s demise, all the House of Medici’s allodial possessions, including £2,000,000[55] liquid cash, a vast art collection, robes of state and lands in the former Duchy of Urbino, were conferred on Anna Maria Luisa.[2] In regards to this, her most notable act was the Patto di Famiglia (“Family Pact”), signed on 31 October 1737.[56] In collaboration with the Holy Roman Emperor and Francis of Lorraine, she willed all the personal property of the Medici’s to the Tuscan state, provided that nothing was ever removed from Florence.

[…] ジャン・ガストーネの死去により、メディチ家の全財産、200万ポンド相当の流動資産、膨大な美術品、儀礼服、元ウルビーノ公国の土地は、アンナ・マリア・ルイザが相続した。ここでアンナ・マリア・ルイザが行った顕著な功績は、1737年10月31日にPatto di Famiglia(「一族の契約」)に署名したことだった。神聖ローマ帝国とロレーヌ公フランツとの協議のもと、メディチ家の全財産を、フィレンツェから一切持ち出さないことを条件に、トスカーナ公国政府に遺贈した。



By this act, Anna Maria single-handedly saved the immense cultural heritage of Florence from succumbing to the fate of other Italian ducal estates that had been absorbed by European Powers. Mantua, for instance, was stripped bare when the Gonzaga line died out in 1627. The Gonzaga art collection was sold in its entirety to Charles I of England, and what was left was taken by the Habsurgs when the last Grand Duke of the French Gonzaga branch died in 1708. In 1731, the same fate befell the Duchy of Parma with the demise of the Farnese family. Three years after the death of the last Farnese duke, the ducal art collections were removed from the family palaces and shipped to the House of Bourbon rulers in Naples.


This would surely have happened to Florence as well if not for Anna Maria’s badassness. The vast majority of what is now in the Uffizi Gallery, Pitti Palace, Palazzo Vecchio, the Laurenziana library, Magliabecchiana library, Palatine library, a large chunk of the Bargello and everything in the smaller suburban Medici villas would be gone. Florence as we know it today would not exist. […]


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Alison Abbott
14 February 2013, Mannheim, Germany

In 1966, the tombs of the Medici family were swamped in mud during severe flooding of Florence, which many feared had damaged the bodies. But Anna Maria Luisa’s skeleton was found to be mostly intact when it was exhumed last October as part of a research collaboration between the University of Florence in Italy and the Reiss Engelhorn Museum in Mannheim, Germany. The first pictures from the exhumation were released at a press briefing today.



Anna Maria Luisa married Johann Wilhelm II, ruler of the Electoral Palatinate, a territory of the Holy Roman Empire that is now in Germany’s Rhineland. After her husband’s death in 1716, she returned to live in Florence; however, researchers were surprised to discover that she was buried in the crown of the Palatinate, rather than the death crown of the Medicis.


Medical mystery

Her body was exhumed for a week before being reburied. During that time, scientists made a three-dimensional scan of the skeleton, which enabled them to create an exact replica of it. They removed two medallions from the coffin for restoration, and took a piece of bone for testing.


Albert Zink, a biological anthropologist at the European Academy of Bolzano in Italy, is carrying out a DNA analysis of Anna Maria Luisa’s bones and material from a pot believed to contain her entrails, which according to Medici tradition would have been buried separately from her body. Zink also analysed the DNA of Ötzi, the 5,200-year-old iceman found in the Alps in 1991.



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