Most windows in Chartres Cathedral date back in the 13th century, which is incredible.
Excerpts from Wikipedia with Japanese translation.




Perhaps the most distinctive feature of Chartres Cathedral is the extent to which architectural structure has been adapted to meet the needs of stained glass. The use of a three-part elevation with external buttressing allowed for far larger windows than earlier designs, particularly at the clerestory level. Most cathedrals of the period had a mixture of windows containing plain or grisaille glass and windows containing dense stained glass panels, with the result that the brightness of the former tended to diminish the impact and legibility of the latter. At Chartres, nearly all of the 176 windows were filled with equally dense stained glass, creating a relatively dark but richly coloured interior in which the light filtering through the myriad narrative and symbolic windows was the main source of illumination.


12th-century windows


The majority of the windows now visible at Chartres were made and installed between 1205 and 1240,[20] however four lancets preserve panels of Romanesque glass from the 12th century which survived the fire of 1195. Three of these are located beneath the rose in the west façade; the Passion window to the south, the Infancy of Christ in the centre and a Tree of Jesse to the north. All three of these windows were originally made around 1145 but were restored in the early 13th century and again in the 19th. The other 12th century window, perhaps the most famous at Chartres is the so-called Belle Verrière, found in the first bay of the choir after the south transept. This window is actually a composite; the upper part, showing the Virgin and child surrounded by adoring angels, dates from around 1180 and was probably positioned at the centre of the apse in the earlier building. The Virgin is depicted wearing a blue robe and sitting in a frontal pose on a throne, with the Christ Child seated on her lap raising his hand in blessing. This composition, known as the Sedes sapientia (‘Throne of Wisdom’), which also appears on the Portail Royale, is based on the famous cult figure kept in the crypt. The lower part or the window, showing scenes from the Infancy of Christ dates from the main glazing campaign around 1225.

Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière
Belle Verrièreの聖母子

今日シャルトル大聖堂で見ることができる窓のほとんどは、1205年から1240年にかけて制作され設置された。ただ、4カ所のランセットでは、12世紀のロマネスク様式のガラスが、1195年の火災を生き延びている。その内の3枚は、西側ファサードバラ窓の下にあり、南側は「受難」、中央は「キリストの幼少期」、北側は「エッサイの樹」が描かれている。この3枚はすべて1145年に制作されたが、13世紀初期と19世紀に修復された。もう1枚の12世紀の窓、恐らくシャルトル大聖堂で最も有名な窓は、Belle Verrièreと呼ばれ南側翼廊の先の内陣(聖歌隊席)にある第一ベイにある。この窓は、実は、複合的になっており、上部の聖母子と崇拝する天使は1180年ごろに遡り、恐らく以前の建物のアプスの中央に設置されていた。聖母は青い衣装を身にまとい正面を向いて玉座に腰掛け、その膝の上に座る幼子イエスは、片手を上げて祝福を与えている。Sedes sapientia (‘Throne of Wisdom’「上智の座」)として知られPortail Royale(「王の扉口」正面入り口)にもあるこの構図は、地下クリプトに保存されている有名な崇拝像に基づいている。下部はキリストの幼少期を描き、1225年ごろのステンドグラス工事に遡る。

Lower windows

Each bay of the aisles and the choir ambulatory contains one large lancet window, most of them roughly 8.1m high by 2.2m wide.[21] The subjects depicted in these windows, made between 1205 and 1235, include stories from the Old and New Testament and the Lives of the Saints as well as typological cycles and symbolic images such as the signs of the zodiac and labours of the months. Most windows are made up of around 25–30 individual panels showing distinct episodes within the narrative – only the Belle Verrière includes a larger image made up of multiple panels.

側廊と聖歌隊席周歩廊にあるベイには、それぞれ一枚の大きいランセット窓があり、そのほとんどが高さ8.1m幅2.2mある。1205年から1235年に制作され、主題は旧約聖書、新約聖書、諸聖人の生涯の物語と、十二宮の象徴や「labours of the months (月々の努め)」など typological cyclesと象徴的図像が描かれている。ほとんどの窓は、25枚から30枚の個別のパネルで構成され、それぞれ物語の中の異なるエピソードが描かれている。ただし、Belle Verrièreは、複数のパネルで1つの大きな図像を描いている。

Several of the windows at Chartres include images of local tradesmen or labourers in the lowest two or three panels, often with fascinating details of their equipment and working methods. Traditionally it was claimed that these images represented the guilds of the donors who paid for the windows. In recent years however this view has largely been discounted, not least because each window would have cost around as much as a large mansion house to make – while most of the labourers depicted would have been subsistence workers with little or no disposable income. Furthermore, although they became powerful and wealthy organisations in the later medieval period, none of these trade guilds had actually been founded when the glass was being made in the early 13th century.[22] A more likely explanation is that the Cathedral clergy wanted to emphasise the universal reach of the Church, particularly at a time when their relationship with the local community was often a troubled one.


a leather worker